Pantothenic acid is widely distributed in foods; clinical deficiency is rare. The vitamin has critical roles in metabolism.


Pantothenic acid is present in all plant and animal tissues.The most important sources in mixed diets are meats) particularly liver and heart). Mushrooms, avocados, broccoli, egg yolks, yeast, skim milk, and sweet potatoes are also good sources of the vitamin.


Pantothenic acid deficiency results in impairments in lipid synthesis and energy production. Because the vitamin is so widely distributed in foods, deficiencies are rare. However, pantothenic acid deficiency has been observed among severely malnourished humans. Symptoms include paresthesia in the toes and soles of the feet, burning sensations in the feet, depression, fatigue, insomnia, and weakness.

DRI Range
1.7­7 mg/day, depending on age and gender